Catalogue number C108005
Chemical nameIsoginkgetin
CAS Number548-19-6
Molecular WeightC32H22O10
Physical DescriptionYellow cryst.
SolventChloroform, Dichloromethane,DMSO
StorageStored at 2-8°C, Protected from air and light, refrigerate or freeze

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a key role in tumor invasion. Inhibitors of MMP-9 were screened from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood) and one potent inhibitor, isoginkgetin, a biflavonoid, was identified. Noncytotoxic levels of isoginkgetin decreased MMP-9 production profoundly, but up-regulated the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. The major mechanism of Ras-dependent MMP-9 production in HT1080 cells was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Expression of dominant-active H-Ras and p85 (a subunit of PI3K) increased MMP-9 activity, whereas dominant-negative forms of these molecules decreased the level of MMP-9. H-Ras did not increase MMP-9 in the presence of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and a NF-kappaB inhibitor, SN50. Further studies showed that isoginkgetin regulated MMP-9 production via PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathway, as evidenced by the findings that isoginkgetin inhibited activities of both Akt and NF-kappaB. PI3K/Akt is a well-known key pathway for cell invasion, and isoginkgetin inhibited HT1080 tumor cell invasion substantially. Isoginkgetin was also quite effective in inhibiting the activities of Akt and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinomas and B16F10 melanoma. Moreover, isoginkgetin treatment resulted in marked decrease in invasion of these cells. In summary, PI3K/Akt is a major pathway for MMP-9 expression and isoginkgetin markedly decreased MMP-9 expression and invasion through inhibition of this pathway. This suggests that isoginkgetin could be a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent against tumor invasion.

Isoginkgetin inhibits splicing both in vivo and in vitro at similar micromolar concentrations. It appears to do so by preventing stable recruitment of the U4/U5/U6 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, resulting in accumulation of the prespliceosomal A complex. Like two other recently reported general pre-mRNA splicing inhibitors, isoginkgetin has been previously described as an anti-tumor agent. Our results suggest that splicing inhibition is the mechanistic basis of the anti-tumor activity of isoginkgetin. Thus, pre-mRNA splicing inhibitors may represent a novel avenue for development of new anti-cancer agents.

References1. Planta Med., 2012, 78(7), 672-677.
2. Phytochemistry, 1987, 26(12), 3335-3337.
3. Mol. Cancer Ther., 2006, 5(11), 2666-2675.
4. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2008, 283, 33147-33154.
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